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Entomofauna asociada a maíz de temporal con diferentes manejos de malezas en Chiapas, México

by Silva Aparicio, M; Castro Ramírez, A.E; León Cortés, J.L; Ishiki Ishihara, M.
Publisher: Dic 2003ISSN: 1659-008.Other Title: Insects associated to maize under different weed management regimes in Chiapas, Mexico.Subject(s): ZEA MAYS | MALEZAS | ESCARDA | HERBICIDAS | INSECTA | DEPREDADORES | DINAMICA DE POBLACIONES | DENSIDAD DE LA POBLACION | ECOLOGIA ANIMAL | CHIAPAS | MEXICO | ZEA MAYS | WEEDS | WEED CONTROL | HERBICIDES | INSECTA | PREDATORS | POPULATION DYNAMICS | POPULATION DENSITY | ANIMAL ECOLOGY | CHIAPAS | MEXICO | ZEA MAYS | MAUVAISE HERBE | DESHERBAGE | HERBICIDE | INSECTA | PREDATEUR | DYNAMIQUE DES POPULATIONS | DENSITE DE POPULATION | ECOLOGIE ANIMALE | CHIAPAS | MEXIQUEOnline Resources: Es In: Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecología (CATIE) (no.70) p. 65-73Summary: Se estudiaron los cambios en la riqueza y abundancia relativa de distintos grupos de insectos asociados al cultivo de maíz, con tres manejos diferentes de arvenses o malezas, durante el ciclo agrícola 2002, en dos parcelas de la comunidad de Yalumá Villahermosa, Chiapas. Los tratamientos establecidos fueron: maíz sin arvenses, con tres deshierbas con herbicidasSummary: maíz con arvenses, con una deshierba con herbicidas, y maíz con dos especies de malezas melíferas, con deshierbas selectivas. Se recolectaron insectos y arvenses de junio a septiembre. Se obtuvieron 28 especies de plantas, 10934 insectos y arañas de 101 familias y 255 morfoespecies, las cuales se agruparon según sus hábitos alimentarios en fitófagos, depredadores, polinizadores, parasitoides y degradadores. La diversidad de insectos y arañas fue mayor en los tratamientos con malezas y con malezas melíferas, los mismos tratamientos donde abundaron los depredadores. Los fitófagos fueron los más abundantes en todos los tratamientos en ambas parcelas. La presencia de arvenses influyó en la riqueza y abundancia de insectos y depredadores presentes en el cultivo de maíz.Summary: Changes in species variety and relative abundance of insect groups associated with maize were studied in relation to three different weed management regimes during the agricultural cycle of 2002 in Yaluma, Villahermosa, Chiapas. Three contrasting weed management regimes were included: a maize monoculture, where weeds were eliminated by applying herbicides three times during the cropping cycle, maize associated with volunteer weeds and subject to a simple herbicide application, and maize in association with two melipherous weed species that underwent selective weeding. The experiment was established in a completely randomized design with three replications. Insects and weeds were collected monthly between June and September. Twenty-eight weed species, and 10934 species of insects and spiders belonging to 101 families and 255 species were collected. The insects were grouped, according to their feeding habits, in phytophagous, predators, pollinators, parasites and decomposers. Insect and spider diversity was higher when the maize was associated with weeds and melipherous plants where predators were abundant. The phytophagous insects were the most abundant group across all weed management treatments. The presence of weeds influenced the variety and abundance of insects and predators present in maize.
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Se estudiaron los cambios en la riqueza y abundancia relativa de distintos grupos de insectos asociados al cultivo de maíz, con tres manejos diferentes de arvenses o malezas, durante el ciclo agrícola 2002, en dos parcelas de la comunidad de Yalumá Villahermosa, Chiapas. Los tratamientos establecidos fueron: maíz sin arvenses, con tres deshierbas con herbicidas

maíz con arvenses, con una deshierba con herbicidas, y maíz con dos especies de malezas melíferas, con deshierbas selectivas. Se recolectaron insectos y arvenses de junio a septiembre. Se obtuvieron 28 especies de plantas, 10934 insectos y arañas de 101 familias y 255 morfoespecies, las cuales se agruparon según sus hábitos alimentarios en fitófagos, depredadores, polinizadores, parasitoides y degradadores. La diversidad de insectos y arañas fue mayor en los tratamientos con malezas y con malezas melíferas, los mismos tratamientos donde abundaron los depredadores. Los fitófagos fueron los más abundantes en todos los tratamientos en ambas parcelas. La presencia de arvenses influyó en la riqueza y abundancia de insectos y depredadores presentes en el cultivo de maíz.

Changes in species variety and relative abundance of insect groups associated with maize were studied in relation to three different weed management regimes during the agricultural cycle of 2002 in Yaluma, Villahermosa, Chiapas. Three contrasting weed management regimes were included: a maize monoculture, where weeds were eliminated by applying herbicides three times during the cropping cycle, maize associated with volunteer weeds and subject to a simple herbicide application, and maize in association with two melipherous weed species that underwent selective weeding. The experiment was established in a completely randomized design with three replications. Insects and weeds were collected monthly between June and September. Twenty-eight weed species, and 10934 species of insects and spiders belonging to 101 families and 255 species were collected. The insects were grouped, according to their feeding habits, in phytophagous, predators, pollinators, parasites and decomposers. Insect and spider diversity was higher when the maize was associated with weeds and melipherous plants where predators were abundant. The phytophagous insects were the most abundant group across all weed management treatments. The presence of weeds influenced the variety and abundance of insects and predators present in maize.

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