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Crecimiento de tres gramíneas forrajeras establecidas en cultivo intercalado con maíz (Zea mays L.) o vigna (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

by Duarte, J.M; Pezo, D.A; Arze, J.
Publisher: Abr 1994Subject(s): ZEA MAYS | VIGNA UNGUICULATA | PENNISETUM PURPUREUM | BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA | BRACHIARIA DICTYONEURA | CULTIVO INTERCALADO | GRAMINEAS FORRAJERAS | BIOMASA | CRECIMIENTO | TURRIALBA | COSTA RICA | ZEA MAYS | VIGNA UNGUICULATA | PENNISETUM PURPUREUM | BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA | BRACHIARIA DICTYONEURA | INTERCROPPING | FEED GRASSES | BIOMASS | GROWTH | COSTA RICA | ZEA MAYS | VIGNA UNGUICULATA | PENNISETUM PURPUREUM | BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA | BRACHIARIA DICTYONEURA | CULTURE INTERCALAIRE | GRAMINEE FOURRAGERE | BIOMASSE | CROISSANCE | COSTA RICA In: Pasturas Tropicales (Colombia) v. 16(1) p. 8-14Summary: An experiment was carried out at CATIE's Tropical Livestock Research Station in Turrialba, Costa Rica (9° 53' N, 83° 38' W; 2641 mm; 23.5°C; 602 m.a.s.l.), to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) or Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (vigna) on the growth of P. purpureum cv. Mott, B. brizantha cv. Marandú and B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133, when they were established simultaneously in alternate rows, as an alternative to reclaim degraded pastures dominated by native grasses (mainly Axonopus compressus). A randomized complete block design, with 11 treatments and four replications were used. The treatments were defined by the factorial arrangement of the two annual crops x the three grasses, plus the five crops grown in monoculture. In order to define the growth pattern of the grasses, different non linear regression models were adjusted to the total aerial biomass yield measured at the following phenological stages: shoot formation, stem elongation, pre-flowering, flowering initiation and full flowering. Also, analysis of variance were run for the maximum total biomass yield and the linear growth rate estimates. The maximum total aerial biomass yields obtained for P. purpureum cv. Mott, B. brizantha cv. Marandú and B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133 grown in monoculture were: 113.4, 33.8 and 6.24 tons DM/ha, respectively. When intercropped to corn, these yields declined to 44 percent, 38 percent and 68 percent of what was recorded for the monoculture treatments. The corresponding values for the association with vigna were 49 percent, 35 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. On the other hand, the growth pattern analysis indicated that a fast growing prostrate legume, such as vigna cv. Chiricano, which can reach a very high leaf area index (9.1 cm2/cm2 of land) at only 56 days after planting imposes strong competitive effects on the companion grasses. The plant losses registered for the grasses intercropped with vigna, suggest not to consider this species for simultaneous planting with grasses, even though and important compensatory growth was detected for P. purpureum cv. Mott and B. brizantha cv. Marandú, after the vigna pods were harvested. On the contrary, the grass/corn intercropping seems to be a more promising alternative for the reclamation of degraded pastures, although the establishing phase of the grasses is delayed. However, the competition effects made by corn are temporary, and even less marked in a prostrate and slow growing species such as B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133.
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An experiment was carried out at CATIE's Tropical Livestock Research Station in Turrialba, Costa Rica (9° 53' N, 83° 38' W; 2641 mm; 23.5°C; 602 m.a.s.l.), to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) or Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (vigna) on the growth of P. purpureum cv. Mott, B. brizantha cv. Marandú and B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133, when they were established simultaneously in alternate rows, as an alternative to reclaim degraded pastures dominated by native grasses (mainly Axonopus compressus). A randomized complete block design, with 11 treatments and four replications were used. The treatments were defined by the factorial arrangement of the two annual crops x the three grasses, plus the five crops grown in monoculture. In order to define the growth pattern of the grasses, different non linear regression models were adjusted to the total aerial biomass yield measured at the following phenological stages: shoot formation, stem elongation, pre-flowering, flowering initiation and full flowering. Also, analysis of variance were run for the maximum total biomass yield and the linear growth rate estimates. The maximum total aerial biomass yields obtained for P. purpureum cv. Mott, B. brizantha cv. Marandú and B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133 grown in monoculture were: 113.4, 33.8 and 6.24 tons DM/ha, respectively. When intercropped to corn, these yields declined to 44 percent, 38 percent and 68 percent of what was recorded for the monoculture treatments. The corresponding values for the association with vigna were 49 percent, 35 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. On the other hand, the growth pattern analysis indicated that a fast growing prostrate legume, such as vigna cv. Chiricano, which can reach a very high leaf area index (9.1 cm2/cm2 of land) at only 56 days after planting imposes strong competitive effects on the companion grasses. The plant losses registered for the grasses intercropped with vigna, suggest not to consider this species for simultaneous planting with grasses, even though and important compensatory growth was detected for P. purpureum cv. Mott and B. brizantha cv. Marandú, after the vigna pods were harvested. On the contrary, the grass/corn intercropping seems to be a more promising alternative for the reclamation of degraded pastures, although the establishing phase of the grasses is delayed. However, the competition effects made by corn are temporary, and even less marked in a prostrate and slow growing species such as B. dictyoneura CIAT 6133.

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