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Growth, production, and bean quality of Coffea arabica as affected by interspecific grafting: consequences for rootstock breeding

by Bertrand, B; Etienne, H; Eskes, A.
Publisher: 2001ISSN: 0018-5345.Subject(s): COFFEA | COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | COFFEA LIBERICA | SABOR | CAFEINA | COMPOSICION QUIMICA | CAFE | CALIDAD | RENDIMIENTO DE CULTIVOS | INJERTO | CRECIMIENTO | ANATOMIA DE LA PLANTA | COMPATIBILIDAD DEL INJERTO | PORTAINJERTOS | SUCROSA | COSTA RICA | COFFEA | COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | COFFEA LIBERICA | FLAVOUR | CAFFEINE | CHEMICAL COMPOSITION | COFFEE | QUALITY | CROP YIELD | GRAFTING | GROWTH | PLANT ANATOMY | GRAFT COMPATIBILITY | ROOTSTOCKS | SUCROSE | COSTA RICA | COFFEA | COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | COFFEA LIBERICA | FLAVEUR | CAFEINE | COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE | CAFE | QUALITE | RENDEMENT DES CULTURES | GREFFAGE | CROISSANCE | ANATOMIE VEGETALE | COMPATIBILITE DE GREFFE | PORTE GREFFE | SACCHAROSE | COSTA RICA In: Hort Science (EUA) v. 36(2) p. 269-273Summary: In order to avoid nematode damage to roots of Coffea arabica in Latin America, a common practice is interspecific grafting on C. canephora var. Robusta rootstocks. The performance of two C. arabica cultivars, 'Caturra' and 'Catimor T5175', was evaluated on four rootstocks: C. canephora cv. Robusta ('T3561' and 'T3757') and C. liberica var. liberica and var. dewevrei, for 5 years (1992-97) in a trial at 1180 m elevation in Costa Rica. Nongrafted plants of the two Arabica cultivars were used as controls. Mortality of plants grafted on the two C. liberica cultivars was major who 20 percent vs. 6-13 percent for plants grafted on C. canephora, and 3-4 percent for the two controls. Analysis of accumulated yields over four harvests showed that the rootstocks limited stem girth and reduced yield by 10-48 percent. Yield on the C. canephora rootstock was greater than that on the two C. liberica cultivars. However, grafting did not affect female fertility (peaberries, empty berries) or content of several chemicals, such as caffeine, fat and sucrose. The two C. liberica rootstocks significantly reduced aroma and bean size. Histological studies revealed symptoms of incompatibility, characterized by more dilated and less distinct growth rings and appearance of plugged vascular connections. The poorperformance of the rootstocks may therefore be explained by partial incompatibility. However, growth and productivity were also affected by poor adaptations of C. canephora, C. liberica, and C. dewevrei to the lower temperature at high altitudes and by morphological differences in the root systems. These results emphasize the need to develop better adapted rootstock cultivars from C. canephora var. Robusta.
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In order to avoid nematode damage to roots of Coffea arabica in Latin America, a common practice is interspecific grafting on C. canephora var. Robusta rootstocks. The performance of two C. arabica cultivars, 'Caturra' and 'Catimor T5175', was evaluated on four rootstocks: C. canephora cv. Robusta ('T3561' and 'T3757') and C. liberica var. liberica and var. dewevrei, for 5 years (1992-97) in a trial at 1180 m elevation in Costa Rica. Nongrafted plants of the two Arabica cultivars were used as controls. Mortality of plants grafted on the two C. liberica cultivars was major who 20 percent vs. 6-13 percent for plants grafted on C. canephora, and 3-4 percent for the two controls. Analysis of accumulated yields over four harvests showed that the rootstocks limited stem girth and reduced yield by 10-48 percent. Yield on the C. canephora rootstock was greater than that on the two C. liberica cultivars. However, grafting did not affect female fertility (peaberries, empty berries) or content of several chemicals, such as caffeine, fat and sucrose. The two C. liberica rootstocks significantly reduced aroma and bean size. Histological studies revealed symptoms of incompatibility, characterized by more dilated and less distinct growth rings and appearance of plugged vascular connections. The poorperformance of the rootstocks may therefore be explained by partial incompatibility. However, growth and productivity were also affected by poor adaptations of C. canephora, C. liberica, and C. dewevrei to the lower temperature at high altitudes and by morphological differences in the root systems. These results emphasize the need to develop better adapted rootstock cultivars from C. canephora var. Robusta.

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