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Enfermedades foliares en café orgánico y convencional :

by Somayoa Suárez, J.O; Sánchez Garita, V; CATIE, Turrialba (Costa Rica).
Publisher: Dic 2000Subject(s): CAFE ORGANICO | PARAISO | CARTAGO | COFFEA | HEMILEIA VASTATRIX | CERCOSPORA COFFEICOLA | MYCENA CITRICOLOR | COLLETOTRICHUM | PHOMA COSTARRICENSIS | ENFERMEDADES FUNGOSAS | HOJAS | AGRICULTURA ORGANICA | ENFERMEDADES DE LAS PLANTAS | SOMBRA | MORBOSIDAD | COSTA RICA In: Manejo Integrado de Plagas (CATIE) (no. 58) p. 9-19Summary: Se evaluó el desarrollo de las enfermedades foliares en un cafetal convencional (manejado con fertilizantes y plaguicidas sintéticos y sin sombra) y uno orgánico (con sombra y sin aplicación de insumos sintéticos), en dos fincas comerciales vecinas, situadas en Paraíso, Cartago, Costa Rica. Las fincas tenían siete o más años de ser manejadas con el sistema actual. En cada finca se seleccionó una parcela de 1,5 ha, dentro de la cual se identificaron 25 plantas al azar, en cada planta se escogieron tres ramas plagiotrópicas, donde se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de las enfermedades foliares, entre agosto de 1998 y agosto de 1999. Se analizó la fertilidad del suelo y el estado nutricional de las plantas. El desarrollo de las enfermedades varió entre los sistemas de manejo. Cercospora coffeicola tuvo mayor incidencia en el cafetal convencional mientras Mycena citricolor fue mayor en el cafetal orgánico, alcanzando la mayor incidencia (19 por ciento) durante enero. Hemileia vastatrix no mostró diferencias entre los dos sistemas. Colletotrichum spp. y Phoma costarricensis no fueron importantes ni presentaron diferencias entre los sistemas de manejo. C. coffeicola tuvo un fuerte impacto sobre la defoliación en el cafetal con manejo convencional. El impacto de las enfermedades foliares fue mayor en el cafetal convencional, debido principalmente al ataque de C. coffeicola.Summary: eaf diseases on organic and conventional coffee. The development of leaf diseases on a conventional (management with synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and without shade) and an organic (with shade and without synthetic inputs) coffee plantation was evaluated, on two neighbouring commercial farms, situated at Paraíso, Cartago, Costa Rica. These farms have been managed under their current system for seven or more years. On each farm a plot of 1.5 ha was selected, within which 25 plants at random were identified, on each plant three plagiotropic branches were chosen, where the incidence and severity of leave diseases was evaluated, between August 1998 and August 1999. The soil fertility and the nutritional state of the plants was analysed. The development of the diseases varied between the management systems. There was a greater incidence of Cercospora coffeicola in the conventional coffee plantation while Mycena citricolor was greater in the organic coffee plantation, reaching the highest incidence (19 per cent) during January. Hemileia vastatrix showed no differences between the two systems. Colletotrichum spp. and Phoma costarricensis were not important and did not show differences between the management systems. C. coffeicola had a strong impact on defoliation in the coffee plantation with conventional management. The impact of leaf diseases was greater in the conventional coffee plantation, mainly due to attack by C. coffeicola.
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Se evaluó el desarrollo de las enfermedades foliares en un cafetal convencional (manejado con fertilizantes y plaguicidas sintéticos y sin sombra) y uno orgánico (con sombra y sin aplicación de insumos sintéticos), en dos fincas comerciales vecinas, situadas en Paraíso, Cartago, Costa Rica. Las fincas tenían siete o más años de ser manejadas con el sistema actual. En cada finca se seleccionó una parcela de 1,5 ha, dentro de la cual se identificaron 25 plantas al azar, en cada planta se escogieron tres ramas plagiotrópicas, donde se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de las enfermedades foliares, entre agosto de 1998 y agosto de 1999. Se analizó la fertilidad del suelo y el estado nutricional de las plantas. El desarrollo de las enfermedades varió entre los sistemas de manejo. Cercospora coffeicola tuvo mayor incidencia en el cafetal convencional mientras Mycena citricolor fue mayor en el cafetal orgánico, alcanzando la mayor incidencia (19 por ciento) durante enero. Hemileia vastatrix no mostró diferencias entre los dos sistemas. Colletotrichum spp. y Phoma costarricensis no fueron importantes ni presentaron diferencias entre los sistemas de manejo. C. coffeicola tuvo un fuerte impacto sobre la defoliación en el cafetal con manejo convencional. El impacto de las enfermedades foliares fue mayor en el cafetal convencional, debido principalmente al ataque de C. coffeicola.

eaf diseases on organic and conventional coffee. The development of leaf diseases on a conventional (management with synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and without shade) and an organic (with shade and without synthetic inputs) coffee plantation was evaluated, on two neighbouring commercial farms, situated at Paraíso, Cartago, Costa Rica. These farms have been managed under their current system for seven or more years. On each farm a plot of 1.5 ha was selected, within which 25 plants at random were identified, on each plant three plagiotropic branches were chosen, where the incidence and severity of leave diseases was evaluated, between August 1998 and August 1999. The soil fertility and the nutritional state of the plants was analysed. The development of the diseases varied between the management systems. There was a greater incidence of Cercospora coffeicola in the conventional coffee plantation while Mycena citricolor was greater in the organic coffee plantation, reaching the highest incidence (19 per cent) during January. Hemileia vastatrix showed no differences between the two systems. Colletotrichum spp. and Phoma costarricensis were not important and did not show differences between the management systems. C. coffeicola had a strong impact on defoliation in the coffee plantation with conventional management. The impact of leaf diseases was greater in the conventional coffee plantation, mainly due to attack by C. coffeicola.

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