Normal view MARC view ISBD view

Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations

by Beer, J; Muschler, R; Kass, D; Somarriba, E.
Publisher: 1998ISSN: 0167-4366.Subject(s): COFFEA | THEOBROMA CACAO | CORDIA ALLIODORA | EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS | CEDRELA ODORATA | COFFEA ARABICA | SILVICULTURA | PLANTAS DE SOMBRA | PRODUCCION DE MADERA | SOMBRA | AGROFORESTERIA | PRODUCCION DE MADERA | INVESTIGACION | ECOLOGIA | AGRONOMIA | MATERIA ORGANICA DEL SUELO | EROSION | POLUCION | TEMPERATURA | VELOCIDAD | VIENTO | HUMEDAD | MALEZAS | AMERICA CENTRAL | COFFEA | THEOBROMA CACAO | CORDIA ALLIODORA | EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS | CEDRELA ODORATA | COFFEA ARABICA | SILVICULTURE | SHADE PLANTS | WOOD PRODUCTION | SHADE | AGROFORESTRY | WOOD PRODUCTION | RESEARCH | ECOLOGY | AGRONOMY | SOIL ORGANIC MATTER | EROSION | POLLUTION | TEMPERATURE | VELOCITY | WINDS | HUMIDITY | WEEDS | CENTRAL AMERICA | COFFEA | THEOBROMA CACAO | CORDIA ALLIODORA | EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS | CEDRELA ODORATA | COFFEA ARABICA | SYLVICULTURE | PLANTE D'OMBRAGE | PRODUCTION DU BOIS | OMBRE | AGROFORESTERIE | PRODUCTION DU BOIS | RECHERCHE | ECOLOGIE | AGRONOMIE | MATIERE ORGANIQUE DU SOL | EROSION | POLLUTION | TEMPERATURE | VITESSE | VENT | HUMIDITE | MAUVAISE HERBE | AMERIQUE CENTRALE | MANAGEMENT PRACTICES | SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES | PLANT PHYSIOLOGY | MIXED CROPS | BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION | NUTRIENT CYCLING | TREE BIOMASS | LIGHT AVAILABILITY | MICROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS | CROPS YIELD | PEST | DISEASES | BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION | TIMBER PRODUCTION | COFFEE PRODUCTION | FRUIT PRODUCTIONOnline Resources: En In: Agroforestry Systems (Países Bajos) v. 38(1-3) p. 139-164Summary: Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances, but they may also compete for growth resources. For example, shade trees buffer high and low temperature extremes by as much as 5 °C and can produce up to 14 Mg ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1 of litterfall and pruning residues, containing up to 340 kg N ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. However, N subíndice 2 fixation by leguminous shade trees grown at a density of 100 to 300 trees ha exponente -1 may not exceed 60 kg N ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. Shade tree selection and management are potentially important tools for integrated pest management because increased shade may increase the incidence of some commercially important pests and diseases (such as Phythphora palmivora and Mycena citricolor) and decrease the incidence of others (such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cercospora coffeicola). In Central America, merchantable timber production from commercially important shade tree species, such as Cordia alliodora, is in the range of 4-6 m3 ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. The relative importance and overall effect of the different interactions between shade trees and coffee/cacao are dependent upon site conditions (soil/climate), component selection (species/varieties/provenances), belowground and aboveground characteristicas of the trees and crops, and management practices. On optimal sites, coffee can be grown without shade using high agrochemical inputs. However, economic evaluations, which include off-site impacts such as ground water contamination, are needed to judge the desirability of this approach. Moreover, standard silvicultural practices for closed plantations need to be adapted for open-grown trees within coffee/cacao plantations.
    average rating: 0.0 (0 votes)
No physical items for this record

1 fig. 3 tab. Bib. p. 158-164. Sum. (En)

Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances, but they may also compete for growth resources. For example, shade trees buffer high and low temperature extremes by as much as 5 °C and can produce up to 14 Mg ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1 of litterfall and pruning residues, containing up to 340 kg N ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. However, N subíndice 2 fixation by leguminous shade trees grown at a density of 100 to 300 trees ha exponente -1 may not exceed 60 kg N ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. Shade tree selection and management are potentially important tools for integrated pest management because increased shade may increase the incidence of some commercially important pests and diseases (such as Phythphora palmivora and Mycena citricolor) and decrease the incidence of others (such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cercospora coffeicola). In Central America, merchantable timber production from commercially important shade tree species, such as Cordia alliodora, is in the range of 4-6 m3 ha exponente -1 yr exponente -1. The relative importance and overall effect of the different interactions between shade trees and coffee/cacao are dependent upon site conditions (soil/climate), component selection (species/varieties/provenances), belowground and aboveground characteristicas of the trees and crops, and management practices. On optimal sites, coffee can be grown without shade using high agrochemical inputs. However, economic evaluations, which include off-site impacts such as ground water contamination, are needed to judge the desirability of this approach. Moreover, standard silvicultural practices for closed plantations need to be adapted for open-grown trees within coffee/cacao plantations.

Click on an image to view it in the image viewer