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Contribution a l'etude genetique des Mascarocoffea

by Charrier, A; Association Scientifique Internationale du Café, París (Francia); 7. Colloque International sur la Chimie des Cafés Verts, Torrefies et Leurs Derives Hambourg (Alemania, R.F.) 1975.
Publisher: París (Francia) 1976Description: p. 483-495.Subject(s): COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | CARACTERISTICAS AGRONOMICAS | CAFEINA | HIBRIDOS | CRUZAMIENTO | MASCAROCOFFEA | LIBERIA EXCELSOIDES | COFFEA EUGENIOIDES | LEUCOFFEA | MADAGASCAR | COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS | CAFFEINE | HYBRIDS | CROSSBREEDING | COFFEA EUGENIOIDES | MADAGASCAR | COFFEA ARABICA | COFFEA CANEPHORA | CARACTERE AGRONOMIQUE | CAFEINE | HYBRIDE | CROISEMENT | COFFEA EUGENIOIDES | MADAGASCARSummary: The indigenous coffee trees from Madagascar, the Mascareignes Islands and the Comoro Archipelago are well known from the absence or the presence of only a few traces of caffeine in their seeds, but have not yet been the subject of long term studies. Therefore it was impossible to obtain a qualitative improvement of the coffee yielded from this natural plant material without beginning with the study of its general characteristics. The observations carried out on many Mascarocoffea species of the Madagascar collection deal with their flower biology, pedoclimatic adaptation, flowering and fruit setting, and with their agronomic, technological and chemical characteristics. These diploid and self-sterile coffee trees show a very wide biologic diversity and a lot of typical characters. Their culture in so far as an industrial crop is impossible owing to the bitterness or the specific organoleptic tastes of the beverage. This judgement should not be a definitive one without studying morethorougly the qualitative deficiency variation of the Mascarocoffea as well as the interspecific recombination possibilities. Hybrids are easily obtained by interspecific crosses between indigenous malagasy species, and it is noteworthy that these hybrids are fertile in the combinations which have been observed. The introgression of the character "lack of caffeine" in the cultivated coffee trees originated from Africa has been attempted throught the cross breeding between Mascarocoffea and Coffea arabica, C. canephora, Liberio excelsoides and C. eugenioides. The first flowering hybrids are almost sterile and their meiotic behaviour reveals a chromosomic for genetic differentiation between Eucoffea and Mascarocoffea. The fertility restoration is endeavoured by means of chromosome duplication and F1 hybrid back cross
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The indigenous coffee trees from Madagascar, the Mascareignes Islands and the Comoro Archipelago are well known from the absence or the presence of only a few traces of caffeine in their seeds, but have not yet been the subject of long term studies. Therefore it was impossible to obtain a qualitative improvement of the coffee yielded from this natural plant material without beginning with the study of its general characteristics. The observations carried out on many Mascarocoffea species of the Madagascar collection deal with their flower biology, pedoclimatic adaptation, flowering and fruit setting, and with their agronomic, technological and chemical characteristics. These diploid and self-sterile coffee trees show a very wide biologic diversity and a lot of typical characters. Their culture in so far as an industrial crop is impossible owing to the bitterness or the specific organoleptic tastes of the beverage. This judgement should not be a definitive one without studying morethorougly the qualitative deficiency variation of the Mascarocoffea as well as the interspecific recombination possibilities. Hybrids are easily obtained by interspecific crosses between indigenous malagasy species, and it is noteworthy that these hybrids are fertile in the combinations which have been observed. The introgression of the character "lack of caffeine" in the cultivated coffee trees originated from Africa has been attempted throught the cross breeding between Mascarocoffea and Coffea arabica, C. canephora, Liberio excelsoides and C. eugenioides. The first flowering hybrids are almost sterile and their meiotic behaviour reveals a chromosomic for genetic differentiation between Eucoffea and Mascarocoffea. The fertility restoration is endeavoured by means of chromosome duplication and F1 hybrid back cross

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