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Cushion Gall

by Hutchins, L.M; IICA, Turrialba (Costa Rica).
Publisher: Turrialba (Costa Rica) 1960Description: 9 p.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | ENFERMEDADES FUNGOSAS | SINTOMAS | DISTRIBUCION GEOGRAFICA | TRANSMISION DE ENFERMEDADES | RESISTENCIA A LA ENFERMEDAD | CONTROL DE ENFERMEDADES | THEOBROMA CACAO | FUNGAL DISEASES | SYMPTOMS | GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION | DISEASE TRANSMISSION | DISEASE RESISTANCE | DISEASE CONTROL | THEOBROMA CACAO | MALADIE FONGIQUE | SYMPTOME | DISTRIBUTION GEOGRAPHIQUE | TRANSMISSION DES MALADIES | RESISTANCE AUX MALADIES | CONTROLE DE MALADIES | NECTRIA RIGIDIUSCULA | BUBA DE PUNTOS VERDES | TRANSMISION DE ENFERMEDADES (PLANTAS)Online Resources: En Summary: A brief account is given of the history, symptoms, classification, distribution, transmission, varietal susceptibility and the effect on yield of cushion gall disease of cacao occurring in Central and South America. Two main types of cushion gall have been identified, namely, green poin gall and flowery gall. Their essential features are described. Two other types of gall of lesser importance namely, knob gall and hard flat gall, are mentioned. Experiments are described whose results indicate that cushion gall is the manifestation of an infectious disease. Attempts to transmit the disease by inoculation and transplanting pieces of gall tissue into healthy trees have proved successful in about 10 percent of the attempts made. The results of further trials are pending. Evidence has been obtained that the disease is spread naturally from diseased to healthy trees and that it is systemic in the affected trees. Pronounced differences between cacao clones in susceptibility to cushion gall disease have been observed in a variety collection in Costa Rica. Cacao yields are reduced by the incidence of green point gall to an extent proportionate to the number of flower cushions affected. In order to control cushion gall, only healthy propagating material taken from gall-free trees should be used, and all affected trees should be destroyed if this is practicable. Resistant clones should preferably be used for replanting. The reported occurrence of cacao cushion gall in Ghana and Ceylon is mentioned.
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A brief account is given of the history, symptoms, classification, distribution, transmission, varietal susceptibility and the effect on yield of cushion gall disease of cacao occurring in Central and South America. Two main types of cushion gall have been identified, namely, green poin gall and flowery gall. Their essential features are described. Two other types of gall of lesser importance namely, knob gall and hard flat gall, are mentioned. Experiments are described whose results indicate that cushion gall is the manifestation of an infectious disease. Attempts to transmit the disease by inoculation and transplanting pieces of gall tissue into healthy trees have proved successful in about 10 percent of the attempts made. The results of further trials are pending. Evidence has been obtained that the disease is spread naturally from diseased to healthy trees and that it is systemic in the affected trees. Pronounced differences between cacao clones in susceptibility to cushion gall disease have been observed in a variety collection in Costa Rica. Cacao yields are reduced by the incidence of green point gall to an extent proportionate to the number of flower cushions affected. In order to control cushion gall, only healthy propagating material taken from gall-free trees should be used, and all affected trees should be destroyed if this is practicable. Resistant clones should preferably be used for replanting. The reported occurrence of cacao cushion gall in Ghana and Ceylon is mentioned.

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