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The concept and practice of integrated control and prospects of their adoption for West African cacao ecosystem

by Eguagie, W.E.
Publisher: 1973Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | SAHLBERGELLA SINGULARIS | DISTANTIELLA THEOBROMAE | CONTROL DE PLAGAS | CONTROL BIOLOGICO | CONTROL CULTURAL | CONTROL QUIMICO | AFRICA OCCIDENTAL | THEOBROMA CACAO | PEST CONTROL | BIOLOGICAL CONTROL | CULTURAL CONTROL | CHEMICAL CONTROL | WEST AFRICA | THEOBROMA CACAO | LUTTE ANTIRAVAGEUR | LUTTE BIOLOGIQUE | LUTTE CULTURALE | LUTTE CHIMIQUE | AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE In: Revista Theobroma (Brasil) v. 3(4) p. 35-43Summary: 1. The use of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides for the control of cacao mirids Sahlbergella singularis Haghl. and Distantiella theobroma Dist. in West Africa has led to the development of undesirable effects in the arthropod fauna of the crop in some localities. Notable among these side effects are the resurgence in numbers of secondary pests, which before the introduction of the insecticides existed at sub-economic levels and more recently the development of resistance to Gamma - BHC. It is suggested that centrally organized "spot" spray programmes, based on integrated methods involving a careful choice of chemicals and more efficient methods of application could provide an answer to the present problem. Whenever possible chosen insecticides should have short residual action, appreciable fumigant properties and must be selectively toxic to the economic pest. Optimum results would be achieved if insecticides with these properties are incorporated in an integrated control programme which combines good cultural practices such as regular prunning and weed slashing. 2. For the control of piercing and sucking insects (aphids, psyllids, thrips, mealybugs) of young cacao, differences in the ecology of pests and their parasites may be exploited in an integrated control programme by the use of systemic insecticides such as Azodrin and Bidrin applied to soil or by trunk-painting. 3. Previous attempts to enhance the activity of natural enemies of cacao mirids and mealybugs by the importation of exotic species were unsuccessful in West Africa. It is suggested that there is need for a revival of this approach. The integrated methods advocated may be expensive and take a long time to reach full implementation, but if logically pursued would most certainly yield lasting dividends in the long term
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1. The use of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides for the control of cacao mirids Sahlbergella singularis Haghl. and Distantiella theobroma Dist. in West Africa has led to the development of undesirable effects in the arthropod fauna of the crop in some localities. Notable among these side effects are the resurgence in numbers of secondary pests, which before the introduction of the insecticides existed at sub-economic levels and more recently the development of resistance to Gamma - BHC. It is suggested that centrally organized "spot" spray programmes, based on integrated methods involving a careful choice of chemicals and more efficient methods of application could provide an answer to the present problem. Whenever possible chosen insecticides should have short residual action, appreciable fumigant properties and must be selectively toxic to the economic pest. Optimum results would be achieved if insecticides with these properties are incorporated in an integrated control programme which combines good cultural practices such as regular prunning and weed slashing. 2. For the control of piercing and sucking insects (aphids, psyllids, thrips, mealybugs) of young cacao, differences in the ecology of pests and their parasites may be exploited in an integrated control programme by the use of systemic insecticides such as Azodrin and Bidrin applied to soil or by trunk-painting. 3. Previous attempts to enhance the activity of natural enemies of cacao mirids and mealybugs by the importation of exotic species were unsuccessful in West Africa. It is suggested that there is need for a revival of this approach. The integrated methods advocated may be expensive and take a long time to reach full implementation, but if logically pursued would most certainly yield lasting dividends in the long term

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