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Ants, capsids and swollen shoot in Ghana: interactions and the implications for pest control Proceedings

by Leston, D; Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo (Ghana); 3. International Cocoa Research Conference Accra (Ghana) 23-29 Nov 1969.
Publisher: Tafo (Ghana) 1971Description: p. 205-221.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | INSECTOS DAÑINOS | VIROSIS | ENEMIGOS NATURALES | CONTROL BIOLOGICO | CONTROL DE ENFERMEDADES | LUCHA INTEGRADA | CAPSIDOS | COCOA SWOLLEN SHOOT VIRUS | OECOPHYLLA LONGINODA | DISTANTIELLA | SAHLBERGELLA | CREMATOGASTER | PHEIDOLE | GHANA | THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | VIROSES | NATURAL ENEMIES | BIOLOGICAL CONTROL | DISEASE CONTROL | INTEGRATED CONTROL | SAHLBERGELLA | CREMATOGASTER | PHEIDOLE | GHANA | THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | VIROSE | ENNEMI NATUREL | LUTTE BIOLOGIQUE | CONTROLE DE MALADIES | LUTTE INTEGREE | SAHLBERGELLA | CREMATOGASTER | PHEIDOLE | GHANASummary: By experimentation and surveys it has been found that Oecophylla longinoda is an efficient direct control of Distantiella, less effective but still of value in controlling Sahlbergella. But Oecophylla is self-limiting through the establishment of colonies with discrete boundaries, neighbouring colonies being discontiguous. Oecophylla and various Crematogaster spp. are mutually exclusive - the presence of the former rules out the presence of large mealybug populations attended by coccidophilic Crematogaster but permits establishment of small groups attended by Pheidole spp. Every effort should be made to conserve Oecophylla by cultivational means. No insecticide yet used against capsids is non-toxic to ants hence spraying for capsid control in mature cocoa should be so directed as not to touch Oecophylla nest trees and should leave unsprayed a belt at least one tree wide around such Oecophylla trees. Spraying of mature cocoa should be done in the period November to about mid-February, when capsid populations are maximal and do most damage to vegetative tissues and new Oecophylla colony foundation is minimal: but at all times the proviso against spraying Oecophylla trees should be followed. Insecticides should be used to reinforce natural controls, not to replace them
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By experimentation and surveys it has been found that Oecophylla longinoda is an efficient direct control of Distantiella, less effective but still of value in controlling Sahlbergella. But Oecophylla is self-limiting through the establishment of colonies with discrete boundaries, neighbouring colonies being discontiguous. Oecophylla and various Crematogaster spp. are mutually exclusive - the presence of the former rules out the presence of large mealybug populations attended by coccidophilic Crematogaster but permits establishment of small groups attended by Pheidole spp. Every effort should be made to conserve Oecophylla by cultivational means. No insecticide yet used against capsids is non-toxic to ants hence spraying for capsid control in mature cocoa should be so directed as not to touch Oecophylla nest trees and should leave unsprayed a belt at least one tree wide around such Oecophylla trees. Spraying of mature cocoa should be done in the period November to about mid-February, when capsid populations are maximal and do most damage to vegetative tissues and new Oecophylla colony foundation is minimal: but at all times the proviso against spraying Oecophylla trees should be followed. Insecticides should be used to reinforce natural controls, not to replace them

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