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Nutrient deficiencies of cacao in Nigeria Proceedings

by Quesnel, V.C; Chalmers, W.S; Fordham, R; Iton, E.F. eds; Egbe, N.E; Omotoso, T.I; Murray, D.B; Jones, E; Cocoa Research Institute, St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago); 4. International Cocoa Research Conference St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 8-18 Ene 1972.
Publisher: St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 1972Description: p. 153-158.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | SUELOS | DEFICIENCIA DE MINERALES | ENFERMEDADES CARENCIALES | SINTOMAS | DISPONIBILIDAD DE NUTRIENTES | NITROGENO | FOSFORO | POTASIO | OLIGOELEMENTOS | NIGERIA | THEOBROMA CACAO | MINERAL DEFICIENCIES | DEFICIENCY DISEASES | SYMPTOMS | NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY | NITROGEN | PHOSPHORUS | POTASSIUM | TRACE ELEMENTS | NIGERIA | THEOBROMA CACAO | CARENCE MINERALE | MALADIE DE CARENCE | SYMPTOME | DISPONIBILITE D'ELEMENT NUTRITIF | AZOTE | PHOSPHORE | POTASSIUM | OLIGOELEMENT | NIGERIASummary: Most of the present cacao farms in Nigeria were established before any survey of the soils was undertaken. Consequently some of the plantations are on poor soils. Analysis of soil and plant samples together with fertilizer trials in cacao plantations from many parts of the cacao growing areas were undertaken. Nitrogen deficiency is the most widespread, being highly pronounced in the less dense forest areas. Positive responses to nitrogen fertilizer were recorded where the nitrogen contents of the young leaves were below 1.9 per cent but visual deficiency symptoms were observed only where the nitrogen content was less than 1.5 per cent. Although phosphorus deficiency symptoms were not observed, responses of cacao to fertilizer application show that phosphorus is needed to increase cacao yield at many of the sites, particularly where the phosphorus content of the young leaves is less than 0.2 percent and the available phosphorus (Bray & Kurtz P) in the soil less than 10 ppm. Symptoms due to deficiencies of K, Ca, Mg & Zn were observed only in isolated patches in cacao plantations. In general the amounts of these elements in the soils appear to be enough to supply the need of cacao. The boron contents of the soils vary from 0.02 to 0.40 ppm and boron deficiency symptoms are now becoming widespread, symptoms being observed only in adult Amazon cacao
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Most of the present cacao farms in Nigeria were established before any survey of the soils was undertaken. Consequently some of the plantations are on poor soils. Analysis of soil and plant samples together with fertilizer trials in cacao plantations from many parts of the cacao growing areas were undertaken. Nitrogen deficiency is the most widespread, being highly pronounced in the less dense forest areas. Positive responses to nitrogen fertilizer were recorded where the nitrogen contents of the young leaves were below 1.9 per cent but visual deficiency symptoms were observed only where the nitrogen content was less than 1.5 per cent. Although phosphorus deficiency symptoms were not observed, responses of cacao to fertilizer application show that phosphorus is needed to increase cacao yield at many of the sites, particularly where the phosphorus content of the young leaves is less than 0.2 percent and the available phosphorus (Bray & Kurtz P) in the soil less than 10 ppm. Symptoms due to deficiencies of K, Ca, Mg & Zn were observed only in isolated patches in cacao plantations. In general the amounts of these elements in the soils appear to be enough to supply the need of cacao. The boron contents of the soils vary from 0.02 to 0.40 ppm and boron deficiency symptoms are now becoming widespread, symptoms being observed only in adult Amazon cacao

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