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Ambient and on-tree reservoirs of Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. in Nigeria Proceedings

by Jones, E; Quesnel, V.C; Chalmers, W.S; Fordham, R; Iton, E.F. eds; Okaisabor, E.K; Murray, D.B; Cocoa Research Institute, St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago); 4. International Cocoa Research Conference St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 8-18 Ene 1972.
Publisher: St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 1972Description: p. 424-428.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA | PODREDUMBRES | ENFERMEDADES FUNGOSAS | INFESTACION | INOCULACION | ETIOLOGIA | NIGERIA | THEOBROMA CACAO | PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA | ROTS | FUNGAL DISEASES | INFESTATION | INOCULATION | AETIOLOGY | NIGERIA | THEOBROMA CACAO | PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA | POURRITURE | MALADIE FONGIQUE | INFESTATION | INOCULATION | ETIOLOGIE | NIGERIASummary: A survey was carried out over a period of 12 months in a mature cocoa plantation in Ibadan in order to determine the relative importance of various reservoirs of Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. in the aetiology of pod rot disease of cocoa. The persistence of the fungus was determined periodically in leaves in the canopy, bark canker lesions, undetached black pods on the tree, and in the soil, and the importance of these reservoirs in the initiation of primary infection foci of pod rot disease was studied. The persistence of the fungus in the leaves and undetached cocoa pods in the field was very ephemeral and these reservoirs are considered to be of negligible importance. The pathogen remained dormant in bark cankers during the dry months and in the early part of the rainy season, but it was readily isolated from the lesions between August and early November when the rains are steady and the atmosphere is relatively cool. Primary infection foci attributable to inoculum from bark cankers generally appear in the middle of the rainy season. The pathogen was isolated from the soil all the year round by the use of suitable baiting techniques. New infections caused by soil borne inoculum are initiated in the field near the ground during the early rains and throughout the black-pod season. Under Nigerian conditions, the soil reservoir of P. palmivora is considered to be important in the aetiology of pod rot disease than the other known sources of the pathogen
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A survey was carried out over a period of 12 months in a mature cocoa plantation in Ibadan in order to determine the relative importance of various reservoirs of Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. in the aetiology of pod rot disease of cocoa. The persistence of the fungus was determined periodically in leaves in the canopy, bark canker lesions, undetached black pods on the tree, and in the soil, and the importance of these reservoirs in the initiation of primary infection foci of pod rot disease was studied. The persistence of the fungus in the leaves and undetached cocoa pods in the field was very ephemeral and these reservoirs are considered to be of negligible importance. The pathogen remained dormant in bark cankers during the dry months and in the early part of the rainy season, but it was readily isolated from the lesions between August and early November when the rains are steady and the atmosphere is relatively cool. Primary infection foci attributable to inoculum from bark cankers generally appear in the middle of the rainy season. The pathogen was isolated from the soil all the year round by the use of suitable baiting techniques. New infections caused by soil borne inoculum are initiated in the field near the ground during the early rains and throughout the black-pod season. Under Nigerian conditions, the soil reservoir of P. palmivora is considered to be important in the aetiology of pod rot disease than the other known sources of the pathogen

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