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The ant mosaic: a fundamental property of cocoa farms Proceedings

by Jones, E; Quesnel, V.C; Chalmers, W.S; Fordham, R; Iton, E.F. eds; Leston, D; Cocoa Research Institute, St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago); 4. International Cocoa Research Conference St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 8-18 Ene 1972; Murray, D.B.
Publisher: St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 1972Description: p. 311-341; p. 570-581.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | ANTAGONISMO | INSECTOS DAÑINOS | CONTROL DE INSECTOS | CONTROL DE ENFERMEDADES | CREMATOGASTER | AFRICA OCCIDENTAL | THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | ANTAGONISM | PEST INSECTS | INSECT CONTROL | DISEASE CONTROL | CREMATOGASTER | WEST AFRICA | THEOBROMA CACAO | FORMICIDAE | ANTAGONISME | INSECTE NUISIBLE | LUTTE ANTI-INSECTE | CONTROLE DE MALADIES | CREMATOGASTER | AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE | OECOPHYLLA LONGINODA | MACROMISCHOIDES ACULEATUS | CAMPONOTUS ACCAPIMENSIS | CAPSIDS | PHEIDOLE SPP | CREMATOGASTER | FAUNA RELATIONSHIPS | BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL | FORAGING HABITAT | FORAGING PATTERNS | LIGHT INFLUENCEOnline Resources: En Summary: Fieldwork in Ghana has demonstrated the presence in cocoa farms of a mosaic of dominant ants, including Crematogaster (Atopogyne) group, C. striatula, Oecophylla longinoda, Macromischoides aculeatus and Camponotus acvapimensis. The nature of the pest population at any point is largely determined by the identity of the dormant ant: this is of particular importance in the case of mealybugs and capsids. Composition of the mosaic is dependent in part on the shade regime and the nature of the surrounding and overhead vegetation but foraging can take place in common areas. The mosaic is maintained through the natural antagonisms of the ants, except for a few behavioural adaptations permitting some overlapping. All cocoa farms have an ant mosaic, a segment of the pantropical one. The present spray programme is harmful in the long run and ineffectual in the short: the former through upsetting the mosaic and permitting Crematogaster species to spread. These tend mealybugs, putting trees at risk to SSV, and are of limited value as capsid predators. Optimally, cocoa can be 65 percent protected from SSV and capsids by the beneficial mosaic components Oecophylla and Macromischoides. Proposals are made for an integrated control programme aimed at the conservation of cocoa health, a development of that proposed at the previous conference
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Ilus. 7 tab. 21 ref.

Fieldwork in Ghana has demonstrated the presence in cocoa farms of a mosaic of dominant ants, including Crematogaster (Atopogyne) group, C. striatula, Oecophylla longinoda, Macromischoides aculeatus and Camponotus acvapimensis. The nature of the pest population at any point is largely determined by the identity of the dormant ant: this is of particular importance in the case of mealybugs and capsids. Composition of the mosaic is dependent in part on the shade regime and the nature of the surrounding and overhead vegetation but foraging can take place in common areas. The mosaic is maintained through the natural antagonisms of the ants, except for a few behavioural adaptations permitting some overlapping. All cocoa farms have an ant mosaic, a segment of the pantropical one. The present spray programme is harmful in the long run and ineffectual in the short: the former through upsetting the mosaic and permitting Crematogaster species to spread. These tend mealybugs, putting trees at risk to SSV, and are of limited value as capsid predators. Optimally, cocoa can be 65 percent protected from SSV and capsids by the beneficial mosaic components Oecophylla and Macromischoides. Proposals are made for an integrated control programme aimed at the conservation of cocoa health, a development of that proposed at the previous conference

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