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The Trinidad-Nigeria cacao introduction programme 1962-70 Proceedings

by Jones, E; Quesnel, V.C; Chalmers, W.S; Fordham, R; Iton, E.F. eds; Opeke, L.K; Murray, D.B; Cocoa Research Institute, St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago); 4. International Cocoa Research Conference St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 8-18 Ene 1972.
Publisher: St. Augustine (Trinidad y Tobago) 1972Description: p. 32-37.Subject(s): THEOBROMA CACAO | PROGRAMAS DE MEJORAMIENTO | INTRODUCCION DE PLANTAS | RESISTENCIA A LA ENFERMEDAD | CLONES AMELONADOS | CLONES TRINITARIOS | SEMILLAS | COCOA SWOLLEN SHOOT VIRUS | VIROSIS | NIGERIA | TRINIDAD Y TOBAGO | THEOBROMA CACAO | PLANT INTRODUCTION | DISEASE RESISTANCE | SEED | VIROSES | NIGERIA | TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO | THEOBROMA CACAO | INTRODUCTION DE PLANTES | RESISTANCE AUX MALADIES | SEMENCE | VIROSE | NIGERIA | TRINITE ET TOBAGOSummary: Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) disease has remained a perennial problem of cacao cultivation in West Africa. The local Amelonado cacao population is very susceptible to CSSV disease. Some Trinitario types that show some tolerance are inferior to the Amelonado in commercial quality. To obtain the variability needed for breeding for resistance, and introduction of seeds was made from Trinidad by the West African Cacao Research Institute (WACRI) in 1944. The introduction consisting of sixty known and about sixty unknown parents was genetically broad based. The plants resulting from this introduction were vigorous in growth, precocious in yield, with stood CSSV disease infection much better than the Amelonado and the beans are of superior commercial quality. The Trinidad upper Amazon parents of this introduction were taken as the progenies planted in Tafo, as F1. Rigorous screening of the F1 progenies yielded Sca12, Na31, 32, 33, 34, Pa7, 35, IMC24, 47, 60 and 76 and one or two unknown parents. The resulting F2 produced the F3 Amazon varieties that are widely grown in West Africa. The results of the 1944 introduction were so encouraging that the Cacao Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) in conjunction with the Cocoa Research Unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies, embarked on the Trinidad-Nigeria introduction programme in 1962. The programme came to practical completion in 1970. The programme which involved the direct importation from Trinidad of thousands of seed into Nigeria, and the importation of hundreds of clonal bud sticks after an intermediate quarantine period at Kew Gardens, and very intensive quarantine operations both at Kew and Ibadan has been very successful. It appears to be the most successful recorded cacao introduction programme between the West Indies and the continent of Africa
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Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) disease has remained a perennial problem of cacao cultivation in West Africa. The local Amelonado cacao population is very susceptible to CSSV disease. Some Trinitario types that show some tolerance are inferior to the Amelonado in commercial quality. To obtain the variability needed for breeding for resistance, and introduction of seeds was made from Trinidad by the West African Cacao Research Institute (WACRI) in 1944. The introduction consisting of sixty known and about sixty unknown parents was genetically broad based. The plants resulting from this introduction were vigorous in growth, precocious in yield, with stood CSSV disease infection much better than the Amelonado and the beans are of superior commercial quality. The Trinidad upper Amazon parents of this introduction were taken as the progenies planted in Tafo, as F1. Rigorous screening of the F1 progenies yielded Sca12, Na31, 32, 33, 34, Pa7, 35, IMC24, 47, 60 and 76 and one or two unknown parents. The resulting F2 produced the F3 Amazon varieties that are widely grown in West Africa. The results of the 1944 introduction were so encouraging that the Cacao Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) in conjunction with the Cocoa Research Unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies, embarked on the Trinidad-Nigeria introduction programme in 1962. The programme came to practical completion in 1970. The programme which involved the direct importation from Trinidad of thousands of seed into Nigeria, and the importation of hundreds of clonal bud sticks after an intermediate quarantine period at Kew Gardens, and very intensive quarantine operations both at Kew and Ibadan has been very successful. It appears to be the most successful recorded cacao introduction programme between the West Indies and the continent of Africa

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